Articulation is how we say something. Conditions such as Apraxia affects the planning and programming of the muscle, whereas Dysarthria, involves the motor execution of the muscle or the ability to produce clear and accurate speech.
Expressive language is what we say, and receptive language is understanding what we say. Stroke or neurological events can result in common language disorders such as Aphasia, which can affect both expressive and receptive language, impacting comprehension and communication.
Fluency is the flow of speech. Issues with fluency refer to stuttering, which causes breaks in the rhythm of speech. This could be repetition of syllables in words, prolongation of a syllable or blocks before speech is created.
Voice refers to the quality of sound produced during speech. Issues with vocal function can create tension in the throat, impacting loudness or a decreased range of pitch.
Dysphagia refers to difficulty swallowing, impaired chewing, difficulty moving food in the mouth, choking, coughing, and clearing of the throat, while eating.